Process flow and equipment list

Step1: Confirm Granulation Step2: Forming Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIP) Isostatic pressing technology is an advanced equipment for ultra-high pressure hydraulics, which is formed by using the product under uniform ultra-high pressure conditions in a closed high pressure vessel. According to the temperature during forming and consolidation, isostatic pressing technology is divided into three different types: cold isostatic pressing, hot isostatic pressing and hot isostatic pressing. Step3: Sintering Special Sintering Sintering Step4: Inspection Quality Control, QC Step5: Processing Grinding CNC Lathe CNC Mill CNC Mill CNC Mill Centerless grinding Centerless grinding Round grinding Quality Control, QC Quality Control, QC Materials Step6: Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping

Porous Ceramic

Porous Ceramic I. Quoting For porous ceramics, the microstructure is made up of small crystals called grains. In general, the smaller the grain size, the stronger and denser is the ceramic material. The wide variety of applications for porous ceramic materials results from their unique properties. In many respects, these properties cannot be achieved by other materials. II. Processing/Foreword For many years, the presence of porosity in ceramics was often seen to be problematic and a significant scientific effort was made to devise processing routes that produced ceramics with zero porosity. An exception to this philosophy was the refractory industry, in which it was understood that the presence of porosity is critical in controlling thermal conductivity. In these materials, porosity is controlled to optimize the elastic behavior and weight. In more recent times, scientific developments have touched on new areas such as biomimetic, in which scientists aim to duplicate natural structures. There has also been the push(and pull) to design materials and devices at smaller scale levels. Materials are becoming multifunctional with designed hierarchical structures, and porous ceramic can be seen in this light. The challenge now is for materials scientists to produce ceramics with porosity of any fraction, shape, …

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Silicon Nitride

Silicon Nitride, Si3N4 Ceramic Properties Silicon nitride is a man made compound synthesized through several different chemical reaction methods. Parts are pressed and sintered by well developed methods to produce a ceramic with a unique set of outstanding properties. The material is dark gray to black in color and can be polished to a very smooth reflective surface, giving parts with a striking appearance. High performance silicon nitride materials were developed for automotive engine wear parts, such as valves and cam followers and proven effective. The cost of the ceramic parts never dropped enough to make the ceramics feasible in engines and turbochargers. The very high quality bodies developed for these demanding high reliability applications are available today and can be used in many severe mechanical, thermal and wear applications. Silicon nitride has better high temperature capabilities than most metals combining retention of high strength and creep resistance with oxidation resistance. In addition, its low thermal expansion coefficient gives good thermal shock resistance compared with most ceramic materials. Pure silicon nitride is difficult to produce as a fully dense material.  This covalently bonded material does not readily sinter and cannot be heated over 1850oC as it dissociates into silicon and …

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Silicon Carbide

Silicon Carbide is the only chemical compound of carbon and silicon. It was originally produced by a high temperature electro-chemical reaction of sand and carbon. Silicon carbide is an excellent abrasive and has been produced and made into grinding wheels and other abrasive products for over one hundred years. Today the material has been developed into a high quality technical grade ceramic with very good mechanical properties. It is used in abrasives, refractories, ceramics, and numerous high-performance applications. The material can also be made an electrical conductor and has applications in resistance heating, flame igniters and electronic components. Structural and wear applications are constantly developing. General Silicon Carbide Information Silicon carbide is composed of tetrahedra of carbon and silicon atoms with strong bonds in the crystal lattice. This produces a very hard and strong material. Silicon carbide is not attacked by any acids or alkalis or molten salts up to 800°C. In air, SiC forms a protective silicon oxide coating at 1200°C and is able to be used up to 1600°C. The high thermal conductivity coupled with low thermal expansion and high strength give this material exceptional thermal shock resistant qualities. Silicon carbide ceramics with little or no grain boundary …

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Zirconium Oxide

氧化鋯: 氧化鋯是一種具有非常高的抗裂紋擴展性的材料。氧化鋯陶瓷還具有非常高的熱膨脹性,因此通常是連接陶瓷和鋼的首選材料。它是所有精細陶瓷材料中最堅固和最堅固的材料,它廣泛用於製造曾經被認為不可能用陶瓷製成的剪刀和刀具。單晶氧化鋯也被認為是一顆寶石,因為它的折射率創造出類似鑽石的亮度。 氧化鋯可以加工成綠色,餅乾或完全緻密的狀態。在綠色或餅乾形式下,它可以相對容易地加工成複雜的幾何形狀。然而,使材料完全緻密化所需的燒結過程導致氧化鋯體收縮約20%。這種收縮意味著在加工氧化鋯預燒結時不可能保持非常嚴格的公差。 為了實現非常嚴格的公差,必須使用金剛石工具對完全燒結的材料進行機加工/研磨。在這個過程中,使用非常精確的金剛石塗層工具/輪子磨掉材料,直到形成所需的形狀。由於材料的繼承韌性和硬度,這可能是耗時且昂貴的過程。 與傳統陶瓷一樣堅硬而易碎,氧化鋯具有高強度,耐磨性和柔韌性,遠遠超過大多數其他技術陶瓷。氧化鋯是一種非常堅固的技術陶瓷,具有優異的硬度,斷裂韌性和耐腐蝕性能; 所有這些都沒有陶瓷最常見的特性 – 高脆性。 有幾種等級的氧化鋯,其中最常見的是氧化釔部分穩定氧化鋯(Y-PSZ)和氧化鎂部分穩定氧化鋯(Mg-PSZ)。這兩種材料都具有優異的性能,但是,操作環境和零件幾何形狀將決定哪種等級可能適合特定應用(更多內容見下文)。其獨特的抗裂紋擴展性和高熱膨脹性使其成為將陶瓷與鋼等金屬連接的優良材料。由於Zirconia的獨特性能,它有時被稱為“陶瓷鋼”。 氧化鋯是一種多功能材料,廣泛應用於金屬鑄造和牙科植入物。在室溫下,ZrO2呈現單斜晶體結構。在較高溫度下燃燒時,它會轉變為四方和立方。這會在加熱和冷卻循環期間引起破裂,在冷卻循環期間經常發生應力。當氧化鋯與少量其它類型的氧化物混合時,四方和/或立方相是穩定的。適用於此目的的氧化物包括氧化鎂(MgO),氧化釔(Y 2 O 3,氧化釔),氧化鈣(CaO)和氧化鈰(III)(Ce 2 O 3)。 氧化鋯的主要特性: 耐高磨損,化學穩定性,與鋼相似的熱膨脹係數 高強度,良好的衝擊強度,良好的抗熱震性,優異的耐熔融金屬性,良好的耐磨性。 大比重可縮短研磨時間,提高生產效率。 高強度,高硬度,不易破碎,無剝離,白度,表面光滑,無孔,易清潔,球形度好,圓度好,適用於高粘度材料,高線速度和超細要求,達到理想的研磨細度。

Aluminum Oxide

Aluminum Oxide: Aluminum Oxide is usually applied to industries such as semiconductors, solar power, optic industry. While the products mostly used as ceramic arm, ceramic ring, ceramic finger, ceramic bush, ceramic life pin, ceramic gasket. The major properties include as following: electric insulation, high temperature resistance. It possesses strong ionic inter atomic bonding giving rise to its desirable material characteristics. It can exist in several crystalline phases which all revert to the most stable hexagonal alpha phase at elevated temperatures. Aluminum Oxide is one of the most cost effective and widely used material in the family of engineering ceramics. The raw materials from which this high performance technical grade ceramic is made are readily available and reasonably priced, resulting in good value for the cost in fabricated alumina shapes. With an excellent combination of properties and an attractive price, it is no surprise that fine grain technical grade alumina has a very wide range of applications The composition of the ceramic body can be changed to enhance particular desirable material characteristics. An example would be additions of chrome oxide or manganese oxide to improve hardness and change color. Other additions can be made to improve the ease and consistency of …

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Advanced Ceramic

Heat Resistance Thermal Conductivity Electric Resistivity Micro Hardness Thermal Expansion Coefficient Flexural Strength Compressive Strength High Temperature Strength Density Fracture Toughness Poisson’s Ratio Melting Point Zirconia Oxide (ZrO2) High hardness, high density, high flexural strength, and zirconia ceramic density between 5.95-6.05g / cm3 Zirconia ceramics are inherently lubricious to avoid contamination and inconvenience caused by additional lubricants. Good insulation, no static, strong corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance and the advantage of thermal expansion coefficient close to steel. Fracture Toughness [MPa*m0.5] Zirconia Oxide|ZrO2 ■ 9.5 [MPa*m0.5] Silicon Nitride|Si3N4 ■ 7.7 [MPa*m0.5] Silicon Carbide|SiC ■ 4.6 [MPa*m0.5] Aluminium Oxide|Al2O3 ■ 3.6 [MPa*m0.5] Aluminium Nitride|AIN ■ 2.6 [MPa*m0.5] Boron Nitride|BN ■ – Thermal Expansion Coefficient [10-6/℃] Zirconia Oxide|ZrO2 ■ 10.1 [10-6/℃] Aluminium Oxide|Al2O3 ■ 8.0 [10-6/℃] Aluminium Nitride|AIN ■ 4.4 [10-6/℃] Silicon Carbide|SiC ■ 4.0 [10-6/℃] Silicon Nitride|Si3N4 ■ 2.3 [10-6/℃] Boron Nitride|BN ■ 2.0 [10-6/℃] Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) Excellent electrical insulation (1×1014 to 1×1015 Ωcm) Medium to very high mechanical strength (300 to 630 MPa) Extremely high compressive strength (2,000 to 4,000 MPa) High hardness (15 to 19 GPa) Thermal conductivity (20 to 30 W/mK) Good grinding characteristics Electric Resistivity [Ω‧cm] Aluminium Oxide|Al2O3 ■ >10¹⁴ [Ω‧cm] Aluminium Nitride|AIN ■ >10¹⁴ [Ω‧cm] Silicon …

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